Post War Gambling in Britain – Working Class Revolution or Greedy Government?

Gambling, an activity the British enjoy, gradually developed over a period dating back to 1190 and earlier. As such, the spirit of gambling is a part of British culture. But due to regulations, there have been different outcomes that either prevent or benefit the gambling policy of British culture.

Over an era, gambling action has been seen as rights, and a fantastic way to spend leisure time. Gambling in Britain includes the increase of thoroughbred racing which has been tied to the advancement of odds betting that is fixed instead of speculating.

During the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, one of the central social areas in London was the casino, know as a gaming house. Within the post-war era the United Kingdom, people started becoming addicted to gambling. Due to legislative intervention, for a generation, the growth of gambling was prohibited.

Most people view the history of gambling within the British culture as an action that should be outlawed. During the 1932-33 and 1949-51 year sessions of the Royal Commissions, it was proposed that gaming should be regulated. That national policy finally came to fruition in the 1960s.

During the post-war era, gambling can be separated into two central categories, wagering, and gaming. Wagering events are when those participating in a game of skill, bet against one another, based on their assessment of the other person’s ability. Alternatively, gaming is when everyone taking part in the game has the same odds or opportunity of winning. Gaming and wagering match the game playing and a contest between each other, of which gambling is an expansion of these two forms or activities.

A form of gambling during the post-war era that was widely used was dice-like gadgets used for a chance outcome in betting. This also includes a drawing of lots. The common objects used during this period were sticks and pebbles that were marked, plums that was customized as well as peach stones. Astragalus was commonly used for drawing lots. Astragalus is the name of an animal hoof that comes from a deer or other animals. This object was an uneven sided object that resulted in different conclusions when it was cast or thrown.

There was also a distinction between the rich and the poor working class. The rich pampered themselves in betting on cock-fighting, horse racing, and other sports. By the latter part of the fifteenth century, play cards were another one of their leisure activities. The poorer classes of people in Britain played games such like craps, and dice, by using and tossing coins.

Gambling was of great concern to the lawmakers due to an influx of rich people losing their property and money to poor people. News of widespread greed during this era led to constraints placed on what a gambler could lose, as well as with who and when they were allowed to gamble. Those who could gamble included the King of England and the King of France, along with knights and princes. The limit restriction on betting consecutively was 20 shillings in a 24 hour period. If the law were not followed, there would be a bill requiring forfeiture of all the money they gambled, and they had to give 100 shillings bonus to the church. Punishment included flogging the person while they were naked. During the eighteenth century, the Gaming Act was passed to curb gambling, but the act was a failure.

Due to greed and corruption in the post-war era in Britain, it was not hard for the gambling establishment to fall prey to organized crime. Because of this infiltration, those establishments operating legally became corrupted through criminal activities. Today you can play online casino games within the United Kingdom, many of which are free to use. Players wishing to place their bets can do so from the comfort of their computer, phone, or iPad.

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NHS say Vaping ‘definitely’ less harmful than smoking

 

Vaping, a good alternative to smoking, according to health organizations

According to public health department NHS Health Scotland, e-cigarettes are now considered to be less dangerous than smoking regular cigarettes. Twenty organizations signed up for the consensus then published by the national health education and promotional agency. This letter was approved by the Scottish government, alongside with health boards, academia, and charities.

In other research found that e-cigarettes were about 95% less harmful than regular cigarettes.

However, using e-cigarettes while still smoking did not provide any benefits. Vaping while smoking regular cigarettes still increased peoples chances of being exposed to lung cancer, bronchitis, and other diseases.

With 2.9 million people (an increase of 700,000 in 2012) in the UK using e-cigarettes, many of them have reported having quit smoking, according to a study in England.

According to Action on Smoking, the news of the benefits of e-cigarettes hasn’t gotten to all smokers. With at least 9 million people in the UK still smoking regular cigarettes, people like Dr. Andrew Fraser are aiming to give people more education about the benefits of e-cigarettes over smoking regular cigarettes and tobacco.

Dr. Fraser, the director of public health science at NHS Health Scotland said vaping is a viable option for people who hope to quit smoking. He says the reports about vaping leading to people to become more likely to smoke more are false, but he also states that e-cigarettes contain nicotine but still, in comparison, are less dangerous.

Organizations have been taking Dr. Fraser’s advice. Though smoking was banned on all health establishments in Scotland in 2015, vaping devices continue to be used. Scotland’s largest health board has allowed e-cigarettes use on hospital grounds. NHS Greater Glasgow and Clyde have allowed restricted use of vaping.

Ann McNeill, a professor of tobacco addiction at King’s College London has that “the 1.3 million vapers who still smoke need to go further and switch completely.”

Shiela Duffy is the chief executive of Ash Scotland, a charity dedicated to reducing the detrimental effects of tobacco, says that the use of e-cigarettes helps bring “clarity” to the problem.

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Have We Totally Lost the Spirit of ’45?

Have We Totaly Lost the Spirit of ’45?

I believe we have totally lost the spirit of ’45. This is a new generation and each generation comes with its own difficulties, strengths, and concerns.

According to The Spirit of ’45, a documentary by the film-maker Ken Loach, the generation that lived during and just after the end of world war II was extremely happy to welcome in, what we today would most likely consider, the welfare state. The documentary celebrates the year 1945 and the culture’s emphasis on public control of the railways and mines and banks, jobs, housing, and healthcare. The documentary which stars octogenarians who personally lived through this historical time expresses how the average Brit’s life was enhanced during this time. Much of the emphasis of the documentary is on healthcare and the NHS.

The National Healthcare System (NHS) is a system which started in 1948. It allowed people who had not been able to afford healthcare the ability to be seen by medical professionals. Before the NHS, many Brits who had been injured in the war or from working in the mines had to continue to survive as best they could if they had no means to pay for medical attention. The film expresses that the average person saw the implementation of the NHS and the other public works as a public victory as opposed to an individual one. But that was a different time and a different generation. This was a generation that saw each individual as a survivor of war and its associated atrocities and who similarly to them had endured. They had a shared pain and empathy that does not seem to be present today.

Today, this is a new generation that looks for control – but the relative peace and prosperity that prior generations passed down to them may make the sharing part more difficult to digest. The generations after WW II have not had to endure world war and the generation just after world war II, the baby boomers, probably saw the easiest and most affluent historically recent time on earth. So, sadly just as the generation of ’45 is dying out, so also sadly is that ’45 spirit.

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Ken Loach, film maker in profile

 

 

The Life Of Filmmaker Ken Loach

Kenneth Charles Loach was born on June 17th of 1936 and became one of the finest English directors of both independent television and film. His films were directed with a distinct socially critical style, and his pieces documenting poverty were superb. In 1969, British Film Industries voted his movie Kes as the 20th century’s 7th greatest British film. He was the 9th filmmaker to receive the Cannes Film Festivals Palme d’Or award twice.

Ken Loach entered the world in Nuneaton, Warwickshire, and made numerous contributions to the anthology series from the BBC’s Wednesday Play including Cathy Come Home and Up the Junction. He portrayed the conflicts of the working class beautifully. Unfortunately, three of his earliest plays were lost. He worked with Tony Garnett as his producer until the 1970’s ended. He started directing cinema films, and they were well received.

In the 1970’s and 1980’s Ken Loach’s films were not well distributed, were less successful, and were affected by political censorship. Towards the end of the 1980’s he was earning money by directing Tennent’s Lager television advertisements. He directed a short documentary in 1989 for the British Army, and it was broadcast by the BBC Split Screen. After this period, he started directing theatrical films dealing with Northern Ireland’s political troubles, the Spanish Civil War, and courtroom dramas.

Ken Loach began directing political dramas including Sweet Sixteen and Bread and Roses during the 2000’s. He examined the janitors strike in Los Angeles, personal relationships, and an interracial love affair. The most commercial film he directed in his later years was Looking for Eric. The film concerned the conversations of a depressed postman with a football player. In 2016, I, Daniel Blake earned him another Palme d’Or. The film received the BAFTA award and was considered an outstanding British film.

Ken Loach and his lovely wife Lesley reside in their home in Bath. His son Jim Loach followed in his father’s footsteps and entered the field of television and film. A car accident took the life of his younger son when he was early in life. He has three other children, and his daughter, Emma’s husband, is Elliot Levey.

Ken Loach is a secularist and belonged to the British Humanist Association. He has stated he finds dividing children between schools of different faiths both divisive and pernicious. He has stood by his views for his entire life, was a sensational director with a unique flair, and in 1977 his views caused him to turn down an OBE.

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Are critics right that Ken Loach’s Film, the Spirit of ’45, is a work of fantasy?

Are critics right that Ken Loach’s film, “The Spirit of ’45,” is a work of fantasy?

Ken Loach’s documentary film, “The Spirit of ‘45”, may contain a little fantasy, but after all, that’s what filmmakers do, they take advantage of ‘poetic license’ to mesmerize the audience. By making the “The Spirit of ‘45”, Mr. Loach wanted to highlight the Labour Government’s achievements in postwar Britain, which the public chose to forget when the conservative party came into power 6 years later. As a staunch socialist, he felt the need to acknowledge the changes made by Prime Minister Clement Atlee and the Labour Government.

Although Britain won the war in 1945, morale was at an all-time low and needed a boost. Mr. Loach’s film demonstrates how The Prime Minister did that by introducing the National Health Service allowing everyone access to free healthcare. Mr. Atlee also nationalized almost half of the country’s industries, which many felt was a mistake. No one wanted to invest in companies where workers had no representation, and the management was the same as before. These happenings are factual, not fantasy. Some people don’t want to accept the truth, but would rather remember recent ‘good times’ than face the reality of how grim Britain was after the end of the Second World War.

Today, much emphasis is put on “Thatcherism,” the years when Margaret Thatcher was in power. People remember what they want to remember and see what they want to see. “The Spirit of ‘45” reminds the public that Britain is a better country now because of many actions that were taken by the Labour Government in postwar years. The film allows the younger generation to understand the hardships their parents and grandparents endured to enable them to live in a brighter more stable society.

Parts of the film are archived footage and interviews, so how can people question its validity. Most film reviewers and skeptics were not even born when the subject depicted in Mr. Loach’s film occurred. History tells no lies, only those people who do not realize what really happened. “The Spirit of ‘45” is filmed mostly in black and white with occasional insertions of color, which dominate and accentuate the celebratory scenes. Mr. Loach is renowned for factual, fiction films as well as outspoken documentaries.

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